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类型【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1:乌—— 大小:dJrHSU8Y94652KB 下载:cECT8Vvm88648次
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日期:2020-08-11 07:01:41
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1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  [In "The Assembly of Fowls" -- which Chaucer's "Retractation" describes as "The Book of Saint Valentine's Day, or of the Parliament of Birds" -- we are presented with a picture of the mediaeval "Court of Love" far closer to the reality than we find in Chaucer's poem which bears that express title. We have a regularly constituted conclave or tribunal, under a president whose decisions are final. A difficult question is proposed for the consideration and judgment of the Court -- the disputants advancing and vindicating their claims in person. The attendants upon the Court, through specially chosen mouthpieces, deliver their opinions on the cause; and finally a decision is authoritatively pronounced by the president -- which, as in many of the cases actually judged before the Courts of Love in France, places the reasonable and modest wish of a sensitive and chaste lady above all the eagerness of her lovers, all the incongruous counsels of representative courtiers. So far, therefore, as the poem reproduces the characteristic features of procedure in those romantic Middle Age halls of amatory justice, Chaucer's "Assembly of Fowls" is his real "Court of Love;" for although, in the castle and among the courtiers of Admetus and Alcestis, we have all the personages and machinery necessary for one of those erotic contentions, in the present poem we see the personages and the machinery actually at work, upon another scene and under other guises. The allegory which makes the contention arise out of the loves, and proceed in the assembly, of the feathered race, is quite in keeping with the fanciful yet nature-loving spirit of the poetry of Chaucer's time, in which the influence of the Troubadours was still largely present. It is quite in keeping, also, with the principles that regulated the Courts, the purpose of which was more to discuss and determine the proper conduct of love affairs, than to secure conviction or acquittal, sanction or reprobation, in particular cases -- though the jurisdiction and the judgments of such assemblies often closely concerned individuals. Chaucer introduces us to his main theme through the vestibule of a fancied dream -- a method which be repeatedly employs with great relish, as for instance in "The House of Fame." He has spent the whole day over Cicero's account of the Dream of Scipio (Africanus the Younger); and, having gone to bed, he dreams that Africanus the Elder appears to him -- just as in the book he appeared to his namesake -- and carries him into a beautiful park, in which is a fair garden by a river-side. Here the poet is led into a splendid temple, through a crowd of courtiers allegorically representing the various instruments, pleasures, emotions, and encouragements of Love; and in the temple Venus herself is found, sporting with her porter Richess. Returning into the garden, he sees the Goddess of Nature seated on a hill of flowers; and before her are assembled all the birds -- for it is Saint Valentine's Day, when every fowl chooses her mate. Having with a graphic touch enumerated and described the principal birds, the poet sees that on her hand Nature bears a female eagle of surpassing loveliness and virtue, for which three male eagles advance contending claims. The disputation lasts all day; and at evening the assembled birds, eager to be gone with their mates, clamour for a decision. The tercelet, the goose, the cuckoo, and the turtle -- for birds of prey, water-fowl, worm-fowl, and seed-fowl respectively -- pronounce their verdicts on the dispute, in speeches full of character and humour; but Nature refers the decision between the three claimants to the female eagle herself, who prays that she may have a year's respite. Nature grants the prayer, pronounces judgment accordingly, and dismisses the assembly; and after a chosen choir has sung a roundel in honour of the Goddess, all the birds fly away, and the poet awakes. It is probable that Chaucer derived the idea of the poem from a French source; Mr Bell gives the outline of a fabliau, of which three versions existed, and in which a contention between two ladies regarding the merits of their respective lovers, a knight and a clerk, is decided by Cupid in a Court composed of birds, which assume their sides according to their different natures. Whatever the source of the idea, its management, and the whole workmanship of the poem, especially in the more humorous passages, are essentially Chaucer's own.]
2.  And therewithal there came anon Another huge company Of goode folk, and gan to cry, "Lady, grant us goode fame, And let our workes have that name, Now in honour of gentleness; And all so God your soule bless; For we have well deserved it, Therefore is right we be well quit."* *requited "As thrive I," quoth she, "ye shall fail; Good workes shall you not avail To have of me good fame as now; But, wot ye what, I grante you. That ye shall have a shrewde* fame, *evil, cursed And wicked los,* and worse name, *reputation <72> Though ye good los have well deserv'd; Now go your way, for ye be serv'd. And now, Dan Aeolus," quoth she, "Take forth thy trump anon, let see, That is y-called Slander light, And blow their los, that ev'ry wight Speak of them harm and shrewedness,* *wickedness, malice Instead of good and worthiness; For thou shalt trump all the contrair Of that they have done, well and fair." Alas! thought I, what adventures* *(evil) fortunes Have these sorry creatures, That they, amonges all the press, Should thus be shamed guilteless? But what! it muste needes be. What did this Aeolus, but he Took out his blacke trump of brass, That fouler than the Devil was, And gan this trumpet for to blow, As all the world 't would overthrow. Throughout every regioun Went this foule trumpet's soun', As swift as pellet out of gun When fire is in the powder run. And such a smoke gan out wend,* *go Out of this foule trumpet's end, Black, blue, greenish, swart,* and red, *black <73> As doth when that men melt lead, Lo! all on high from the tewell;* *chimney <74> And thereto* one thing saw I well, *also That the farther that it ran, The greater waxen it began, As doth the river from a well,* *fountain And it stank as the pit of hell. Alas! thus was their shame y-rung, And guilteless, on ev'ry tongue.
3.  19. Shot window: A projecting or bow window, whence it was possible shoot at any one approaching the door.
4.  Ysaac was figure of His death certain, That so farforth his father would obey, That him *ne raughte* nothing to be slain; *he cared not* Right so thy Son list as a lamb to dey:* *die Now, Lady full of mercy! I you pray, Since he his mercy 'sured me so large, Be ye not scant, for all we sing and say, That ye be from vengeance alway our targe.* *shield, defence
5.  "Love, that of Earth and Sea hath governance! Love, that his hestes* hath in Heaven high! *commandments Love, that with a right wholesome alliance Holds people joined, as him list them guy!* *guide Love, that knitteth law and company, And couples doth in virtue for to dwell, Bind this accord, that I have told, and tell!
6.  57. Vernicle: an image of Christ; so called from St Veronica, who gave the Saviour a napkin to wipe the sweat from His face as He bore the Cross, and received it back with an impression of His countenance upon it.

计划指导

1.  55. See imperial: a seat placed on the dais, or elevated portion of the hall at the upper end, where the lord and the honoured guests sat.
2.  For lack of riches worldly and of good, They ban and curse, and weep, and say, "Alas! That povert' hath us hent,* that whilom stood *seized At hearte's ease, and free and in good case! But now we dare not show ourselves in place, Nor us embold* to dwell in company, *make bold, venture Where as our heart would love right faithfully."
3.  40. Entriketh: entangles, ensnares; french, "intriguer," to perplex; hence "intricate."
4.  56. The starres seven: Septentrion; the Great Bear or Northern Wain, which in this country appears to be at the top of heaven.
5.  SOMETIME this world was so steadfast and stable, That man's word was held obligation; And now it is so false and deceivable,* *deceitful That word and work, as in conclusion, Be nothing one; for turned up so down Is all this world, through meed* and wilfulness, *bribery That all is lost for lack of steadfastness.
6.  21. Lovedays: meetings appointed for friendly settlement of differences; the business was often followed by sports and feasting.

推荐功能

1.  19. Dwale: night-shade, Solanum somniferum, given to cause sleep.
2.  1. The Parson's Tale is believed to be a translation, more or less free, from some treatise on penitence that was in favour about Chaucer's time. Tyrwhitt says: "I cannot recommend it as a very entertaining or edifying performance at this day; but the reader will please to remember, in excuse both of Chaucer and of his editor, that, considering The Canterbury Tales as a great picture of life and manners, the piece would not have been complete if it had not included the religion of the time." The Editor of the present volume has followed the same plan adopted with regard to Chaucer's Tale of Meliboeus, and mainly for the same reasons. (See note 1 to that Tale). An outline of the Parson's ponderous sermon -- for such it is -- has been drawn; while those passages have been given in full which more directly illustrate the social and the religious life of the time -- such as the picture of hell, the vehement and rather coarse, but, in an antiquarian sense, most curious and valuable attack on the fashionable garb of the day, the catalogue of venial sins, the description of gluttony and its remedy, &c. The brief third or concluding part, which contains the application of the whole, and the "Retractation" or "Prayer" that closes the Tale and the entire "magnum opus" of Chaucer, have been given in full.
3.  4. Mebles: movables, furniture, &c.; French, "meubles."
4.  The merchant, when that ended was the fair, To Saint Denis he gan for to repair, And with his wife he made feast and cheer, And tolde her that chaffare* was so dear, *merchandise That needes must he make a chevisance;* *loan <11> For he was bound in a recognisance To paye twenty thousand shields* anon. *crowns, ecus For which this merchant is to Paris gone, To borrow of certain friendes that he had A certain francs, and some with him he lad.* *took And when that he was come into the town, For great cherte* and great affectioun *love Unto Dan John he wente first to play; Not for to borrow of him no money, Bat for to weet* and see of his welfare, *know And for to telle him of his chaffare, As friendes do, when they be met in fere.* *company Dan John him made feast and merry cheer; And he him told again full specially, How he had well y-bought and graciously (Thanked be God) all whole his merchandise; Save that he must, in alle manner wise, Maken a chevisance, as for his best; And then he shoulde be in joy and rest. Dan John answered, "Certes, I am fain* *glad That ye in health be come borne again: And if that I were rich, as have I bliss, Of twenty thousand shields should ye not miss, For ye so kindely the other day Lente me gold, and as I can and may I thanke you, by God and by Saint Jame. But natheless I took unto our Dame, Your wife at home, the same gold again, Upon your bench; she wot it well, certain, By certain tokens that I can her tell Now, by your leave, I may no longer dwell; Our abbot will out of this town anon, And in his company I muste gon. Greet well our Dame, mine owen niece sweet, And farewell, deare cousin, till we meet.
5.   15. Heried: honoured, praised; from Anglo-Saxon, "herian." Compare German, "herrlich," glorious, honourable.
6.  11. A drunkard. "Perhaps," says Tyrwhitt, "Chaucer refers to Epist. LXXXIII., 'Extende in plures dies illum ebrii habitum; nunquid de furore dubitabis? nunc quoque non est minor sed brevior.'" ("Prolong the drunkard's condition to several days; will you doubt his madness? Even as it is, the madness is no less; merely shorter.")

应用

1.  This yard was large, and railed the alleys, And shadow'd well with blossomy boughes green, And benched new, and sanded all the ways, In which she walked arm and arm between; Till at the last Antigone the sheen* *bright, lovely Gan on a Trojan lay to singe clear, That it a heaven was her voice to hear.
2.  And right anon such strife there is begun For thilke* granting, in the heav'n above, *that Betwixte Venus the goddess of love, And Mars the sterne god armipotent, That Jupiter was busy it to stent*: *stop Till that the pale Saturnus the cold,<70> That knew so many of adventures old, Found in his old experience such an art, That he full soon hath pleased every part. As sooth is said, eld* hath great advantage, *age In eld is bothe wisdom and usage*: *experience Men may the old out-run, but not out-rede*. *outwit Saturn anon, to stint the strife and drede, Albeit that it is against his kind,* *nature Of all this strife gan a remedy find. "My deare daughter Venus," quoth Saturn, "My course*, that hath so wide for to turn, *orbit <71> Hath more power than wot any man. Mine is the drowning in the sea so wan; Mine is the prison in the darke cote*, *cell Mine the strangling and hanging by the throat, The murmur, and the churlish rebelling, The groyning*, and the privy poisoning. *discontent I do vengeance and plein* correction, *full I dwell in the sign of the lion. Mine is the ruin of the highe halls, The falling of the towers and the walls Upon the miner or the carpenter: I slew Samson in shaking the pillar: Mine also be the maladies cold, The darke treasons, and the castes* old: *plots My looking is the father of pestilence. Now weep no more, I shall do diligence That Palamon, that is thine owen knight, Shall have his lady, as thou hast him hight*. *promised Though Mars shall help his knight, yet natheless Betwixte you there must sometime be peace: All be ye not of one complexion, That each day causeth such division, I am thine ayel*, ready at thy will; *grandfather <72> Weep now no more, I shall thy lust* fulfil." *pleasure Now will I stenten* of the gods above, *cease speaking Of Mars, and of Venus, goddess of love, And telle you as plainly as I can The great effect, for which that I began.
3.  Philobone now promised to lead Philogenet to "the fairest lady under sun that is," the "mirror of joy and bliss," whose name is Rosial, and "whose heart as yet is given to no wight;" suggesting that, as he also was "with love but light advanc'd," he might set this lady in the place of her of whom he had dreamed. Entering a chamber gay, "there was Rosial, womanly to see;" and the subtle-piercing beams of her eyes wounded Philogenet to the heart. When he could speak, he threw himself on his knees, beseeching her to cool his fervent woe:
4、  Swelleth the breast of Arcite and the sore Increaseth at his hearte more and more. The clotted blood, for any leache-craft* *surgical skill Corrupteth and is *in his bouk y-laft* *left in his body* That neither *veine blood nor ventousing*, *blood-letting or cupping* Nor drink of herbes may be his helping. The virtue expulsive or animal, From thilke virtue called natural, Nor may the venom voide, nor expel The pipes of his lungs began to swell And every lacert* in his breast adown *sinew, muscle Is shent* with venom and corruption. *destroyed Him gaineth* neither, for to get his life, *availeth Vomit upward, nor downward laxative; All is to-bursten thilke region; Nature hath now no domination. And certainly where nature will not wirch,* *work Farewell physic: go bear the man to chirch.* *church This all and some is, Arcite must die. For which he sendeth after Emily, And Palamon, that was his cousin dear, Then said he thus, as ye shall after hear.
5、  Now, purse! that art to me my life's light And savour, as down in this worlde here, Out of this towne help me through your might, Since that you will not be my treasurere; For I am shave as nigh as any frere. <1> But now I pray unto your courtesy, Be heavy again, or elles must I die!

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网友评论(BTeN009j54217))

  • 付华丽 08-10

      In darkness horrible, and strong prison, This seven year hath sitten Palamon, Forpined*, what for love, and for distress. *pined, wasted away Who feeleth double sorrow and heaviness But Palamon? that love distraineth* so, *afflicts That wood* out of his wits he went for woe, *mad And eke thereto he is a prisonere Perpetual, not only for a year. Who coulde rhyme in English properly His martyrdom? forsooth*, it is not I; *truly Therefore I pass as lightly as I may. It fell that in the seventh year, in May The thirde night (as olde bookes sayn, That all this story tellen more plain), Were it by a venture or destiny (As when a thing is shapen* it shall be), *settled, decreed That soon after the midnight, Palamon By helping of a friend brake his prison, And fled the city fast as he might go, For he had given drink his gaoler so Of a clary <25>, made of a certain wine, With *narcotise and opie* of Thebes fine, *narcotics and opium* That all the night, though that men would him shake, The gaoler slept, he mighte not awake: And thus he fled as fast as ever he may. The night was short, and *faste by the day *close at hand was That needes cast he must himself to hide*. the day during which And to a grove faste there beside he must cast about, or contrive, With dreadful foot then stalked Palamon. to conceal himself.* For shortly this was his opinion, That in the grove he would him hide all day, And in the night then would he take his way To Thebes-ward, his friendes for to pray On Theseus to help him to warray*. *make war <26> And shortly either he would lose his life, Or winnen Emily unto his wife. This is th' effect, and his intention plain.

  • 甘道夫 08-10

      THE PARSON'S TALE.

  • 黄国轩 08-10

       With him there was a PLOUGHMAN, was his brother, That had y-laid of dung full many a fother*. *ton A true swinker* and a good was he, *hard worker Living in peace and perfect charity. God loved he beste with all his heart At alle times, were it gain or smart*, *pain, loss And then his neighebour right as himselve. He woulde thresh, and thereto dike*, and delve, *dig ditches For Christe's sake, for every poore wight, Withouten hire, if it lay in his might. His tithes payed he full fair and well, Both of his *proper swink*, and his chattel** *his own labour* **goods In a tabard* he rode upon a mare. *sleeveless jerkin

  • 宫玉郡 08-10

      61. On the dais: see note 32 to the Prologue.

  • 李沧 08-09

    {  Now since she was not at the feast y-slaw,* *slain Who kepte her from drowning in the sea? Who kepte Jonas in the fish's maw, Till he was spouted up at Nineveh? Well may men know, it was no wight but he That kept the Hebrew people from drowning, With drye feet throughout the sea passing.

  • 张路霞 08-08

      29. Coming with the spring, the nightingale is charmingly said to call forth the new leaves.}

  • 王哲付 08-08

      14 A boy said to have been slain by the Jews at Lincoln in 1255, according to Matthew Paris. Many popular ballads were made about the event, which the diligence of the Church doubtless kept fresh in mind at Chaucer's day.

  • 孙良鸿 08-08

      They fetch'd him first the sweete wine, And mead eke in a maseline,* *drinking-bowl And royal spicery; of maple wood <20> Of ginger-bread that was full fine, And liquorice and eke cumin, With sugar that is trie.* *refined

  • 任晓攀 08-07

       I *dress'd me forth,* and happ'd to meet anon *issued forth* A right fair lady, I do you ensure;* *assure And she came riding by herself alone, All in white; [then] with semblance full demure I her saluted, and bade good adventure* *fortune Might her befall, as I could most humbly; And she answer'd: "My daughter, gramercy!"* *great thanks <17>

  • 李红红 08-05

    {  In olde dayes of the king Arthour, Of which that Britons speake great honour, All was this land full fill'd of faerie;* *fairies The Elf-queen, with her jolly company, Danced full oft in many a green mead This was the old opinion, as I read; I speak of many hundred years ago; But now can no man see none elves mo', For now the great charity and prayeres Of limitours,* and other holy freres, *begging friars <2> That search every land and ev'ry stream As thick as motes in the sunne-beam, Blessing halls, chambers, kitchenes, and bowers, Cities and burghes, castles high and towers, Thorpes* and barnes, shepens** and dairies, *villages <3> **stables This makes that there be now no faeries: For *there as* wont to walke was an elf, *where* There walketh now the limitour himself, In undermeles* and in morrowings**, *evenings <4> **mornings And saith his matins and his holy things, As he goes in his limitatioun.* *begging district Women may now go safely up and down, In every bush, and under every tree; There is none other incubus <5> but he; And he will do to them no dishonour.

  • 朱滢颖 08-05

      WHAT should these clothes thus manifold, Lo! this hot summer's day? After great heate cometh cold; No man cast his pilche* away. *pelisse, furred cloak Of all this world the large compass Will not in mine arms twain; Who so muche will embrace, Little thereof he shall distrain.* *grasp

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