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类型【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1:黄光民 大小:xwfaYh8y12231KB 下载:MDrLoxrL50882次
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日期:2020-08-08 11:40:05
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陶旭临

1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  Whilom* there was dwelling in my country *once on a time An archdeacon, a man of high degree, That boldely did execution, In punishing of fornication, Of witchecraft, and eke of bawdery, Of defamation, and adultery, Of churche-reeves,* and of testaments, *churchwardens Of contracts, and of lack of sacraments, And eke of many another manner* crime, *sort of Which needeth not rehearsen at this time, Of usury, and simony also; But, certes, lechours did he greatest woe; They shoulde singen, if that they were hent;* *caught And smale tithers<1> were foul y-shent,* *troubled, put to shame If any person would on them complain; There might astert them no pecunial pain.<2> For smalle tithes, and small offering, He made the people piteously to sing; For ere the bishop caught them with his crook, They weren in the archedeacon's book; Then had he, through his jurisdiction, Power to do on them correction.
2.  "Ye shall well see how rough and angry face The King of Love will show, when ye him see; By mine advice kneel down and ask him grace, Eschewing* peril and adversity; *avoiding For well I wot it will none other be; Comfort is none, nor counsel to your ease; Why will ye then the King of Love displease?"
3.  L'Envoy of Chaucer.
4.  Paine thee not each crooked to redress, In trust of her that turneth as a ball; <2> Great rest standeth in little business: Beware also to spurn against a nail; <3> Strive not as doth a crocke* with a wall; *earthen pot Deeme* thyself that deemest others' deed, *judge And truth thee shall deliver, it is no dread.
5.  The thoughtful marquis spake unto the maid Full soberly, and said in this mannere: "Where is your father, Griseldis?" he said. And she with reverence, *in humble cheer,* *with humble air* Answered, "Lord, he is all ready here." And in she went withoute longer let* *delay And to the marquis she her father fet.* *fetched
6.  This Troilus her gan in armes strain, And said, "O sweet, as ever may I go'n,* *prosper Now be ye caught, now here is but we twain, Now yielde you, for other boot* is none." *remedy To that Cresside answered thus anon, "N' had I ere now, my sweete hearte dear, *Been yolden,* y-wis, I were now not here!" *yielded myself*

计划指导

1.  Full many a year in high prosperity Lived these two in concord and in rest; And richely his daughter married he Unto a lord, one of the worthiest Of all Itale; and then in peace and rest His wife's father in his court he kept, Till that the soul out of his body crept.
2.  6. Chimb: The rim of a barrel where the staves project beyond the head.
3.  "Now here, now there, he hunted them so fast, There was but Greekes' blood; and Troilus Now him he hurt, now him adown he cast; Ay where he went it was arrayed thus: He was their death, and shield of life for us, That as that day there durst him none withstand, While that he held his bloody sword in hand."
4.  Now help, thou meek and blissful faire maid, Me, flemed* wretch, in this desert of gall; *banished, outcast Think on the woman Cananee that said That whelpes eat some of the crumbes all That from their Lorde's table be y-fall;<5> And though that I, unworthy son of Eve,<6> Be sinful, yet accepte my believe.* *faith
5.  34. Absolon chewed grains: these were grains of Paris, or Paradise; a favourite spice.
6.  For death, that takes of high and low his rent, When passed was a year, even as I guess, Out of this world this King Alla he hent,* *snatched For whom Constance had full great heaviness. Now let us pray that God his soule bless: And Dame Constance, finally to say, Toward the town of Rome went her way.

推荐功能

1.  74. Parements: ornamental garb, French "parer" to deck.
2.  1. Tales of the murder of children by Jews were frequent in the Middle Ages, being probably designed to keep up the bitter feeling of the Christians against the Jews. Not a few children were canonised on this account; and the scene of the misdeeds was laid anywhere and everywhere, so that Chaucer could be at no loss for material.
3.  4. Compare with this stanza the fourth stanza of the Prioress's Tale, the substance of which is the same.
4.  24. Ganilion: a traitor. See note 9 to the Shipman's Tale and note 28 to the Monk's Tale.
5.   5. "Oh, very god!": oh true divinity! -- addressing Cressida.
6.  Save one thing, that she never would assent, By no way, that he shoulde by her lie But ones, for it was her plain intent To have a child, the world to multiply; And all so soon as that she might espy That she was not with childe by that deed, Then would she suffer him do his fantasy Eftsoon,* and not but ones, *out of dread.* *again *without doubt*

应用

1.  Therewith she looked backward to the land, And saide, "Farewell, husband rutheless!" And up she rose, and walked down the strand Toward the ship, her following all the press:* *multitude And ever she pray'd her child to hold his peace, And took her leave, and with an holy intent She blessed her, and to the ship she went.
2.  4. "ye have herebefore Of making ropen, and led away the corn" The meaning is, that the "lovers" have long ago said all that can be said, by way of poetry, or "making" on the subject. See note 89 to "Troilus and Cressida" for the etymology of "making" meaning "writing poetry."
3.  20. Burdoun: bass; "burden" of a song. It originally means the drone of a bagpipe; French, "bourdon."
4、  For, since a woman was so patient Unto a mortal man, well more we ought Receiven all in gree* that God us sent. good-will *For great skill is he proved that he wrought:* *see note <15>* But he tempteth no man that he hath bought, As saith Saint James, if ye his 'pistle read; He proveth folk all day, it is no dread.* *doubt
5、  1. For the plan and principal incidents of the "Knight's Tale," Chaucer was indebted to Boccaccio, who had himself borrowed from some prior poet, chronicler, or romancer. Boccaccio speaks of the story as "very ancient;" and, though that may not be proof of its antiquity, it certainly shows that he took it from an earlier writer. The "Tale" is more or less a paraphrase of Boccaccio's "Theseida;" but in some points the copy has a distinct dramatic superiority over the original. The "Theseida" contained ten thousand lines; Chaucer has condensed it into less than one-fourth of the number. The "Knight's Tale" is supposed to have been at first composed as a separate work; it is undetermined whether Chaucer took it direct from the Italian of Boccaccio, or from a French translation.

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  • 娄华 08-07

      And forth the cuckoo gan proceed anon, With "Benedictus" <58> thanking God in haste, That in this May would visit them each one, And gladden them all while the feast shall last: And therewithal a-laughter* out he brast;"** *in laughter **burst "I thanke God that I should end the song, And all the service which hath been so long."

  • 洪道德 08-07

      9. The song is a translation of Petrarch's 88th Sonnet, which opens thus: "S'amor non e, che dunque e quel ch'i'sento."

  • 刘松恺 08-07

       And as for her that crowned is in green, It is Flora, of these flowers goddess; And all that here on her awaiting be'n, It are such folk that loved idleness, And not delighted in no business, But for to hunt and hawk, and play in meads, And many other such-like idle deeds.

  • 辜波 08-07

      "There may no thing, so God my soule save, *Like to* you, that may displease me: *be pleasing* Nor I desire nothing for to have, Nor dreade for to lose, save only ye: This will is in mine heart, and aye shall be, No length of time, nor death, may this deface, Nor change my corage* to another place." *spirit, heart

  • 蒂莫-斯蒂芬斯 08-06

    {  "Nay, olde churl, by God thou shalt not so," Saide this other hazardor anon; "Thou partest not so lightly, by Saint John. Thou spakest right now of that traitor Death, That in this country all our friendes slay'th; Have here my troth, as thou art his espy;* *spy Tell where he is, or thou shalt it abie,* *suffer for By God and by the holy sacrament; For soothly thou art one of his assent To slay us younge folk, thou false thief." "Now, Sirs," quoth he, "if it be you so lief* *desire To finde Death, turn up this crooked way, For in that grove I left him, by my fay, Under a tree, and there he will abide; Nor for your boast he will him nothing hide. See ye that oak? right there ye shall him find. God save you, that bought again mankind, And you amend!" Thus said this olde man; And evereach of these riotoures ran, Till they came to the tree, and there they found Of florins fine, of gold y-coined round, Well nigh a seven bushels, as them thought. No longer as then after Death they sought; But each of them so glad was of the sight, For that the florins were so fair and bright, That down they sat them by the precious hoard. The youngest of them spake the firste word: "Brethren," quoth he, "*take keep* what I shall say; *heed* My wit is great, though that I bourde* and play *joke, frolic This treasure hath Fortune unto us given In mirth and jollity our life to liven; And lightly as it comes, so will we spend. Hey! Godde's precious dignity! who wend* *weened, thought Today that we should have so fair a grace? But might this gold he carried from this place Home to my house, or elles unto yours (For well I wot that all this gold is ours), Then were we in high felicity. But truely by day it may not be; Men woulde say that we were thieves strong, And for our owen treasure do us hong.* *have us hanged This treasure muste carried be by night, As wisely and as slily as it might. Wherefore I rede,* that cut** among us all *advise **lots We draw, and let see where the cut will fall: And he that hath the cut, with hearte blithe Shall run unto the town, and that full swithe,* *quickly And bring us bread and wine full privily: And two of us shall keepe subtilly This treasure well: and if he will not tarry, When it is night, we will this treasure carry, By one assent, where as us thinketh best." Then one of them the cut brought in his fist, And bade them draw, and look where it would fall; And it fell on the youngest of them all; And forth toward the town he went anon. And all so soon as that he was y-gone, The one of them spake thus unto the other; "Thou knowest well that thou art my sworn brother, *Thy profit* will I tell thee right anon. *what is for thine Thou knowest well that our fellow is gone, advantage* And here is gold, and that full great plenty, That shall departed* he among us three. *divided But natheless, if I could shape* it so *contrive That it departed were among us two, Had I not done a friende's turn to thee?" Th' other answer'd, "I n'ot* how that may be; *know not He knows well that the gold is with us tway. What shall we do? what shall we to him say?" "Shall it be counsel?"* said the firste shrew;** *secret **wretch "And I shall tell to thee in wordes few What we shall do, and bring it well about." "I grante," quoth the other, "out of doubt, That by my truth I will thee not bewray."* *betray "Now," quoth the first, "thou know'st well we be tway, And two of us shall stronger be than one. Look; when that he is set,* thou right anon *sat down Arise, as though thou wouldest with him play; And I shall rive* him through the sides tway, *stab While that thou strugglest with him as in game; And with thy dagger look thou do the same. And then shall all this gold departed* be, *divided My deare friend, betwixte thee and me: Then may we both our lustes* all fulfil, *pleasures And play at dice right at our owen will." And thus accorded* be these shrewes** tway *agreed **wretches To slay the third, as ye have heard me say.

  • 郭建平 08-05

      "And this, on ev'ry god celestial I swear it you, and eke on each goddess, On ev'ry nymph, and deity infernal, On Satyrs and on Faunes more or less, That *halfe goddes* be of wilderness; *demigods And Atropos my thread of life to-brest,* *break utterly If I be false! now trow* me if you lest.** *believe **please}

  • 胡永平 08-05

      The priest him busied, all that e'er he can, To do as this canon, this cursed man, Commanded him, and fast he blew the fire For to come to th' effect of his desire. And this canon right in the meanewhile All ready was this priest eft* to beguile, *again and, for a countenance,* in his hande bare *stratagem An hollow sticke (take keep* and beware); *heed Of silver limaile put was, as before Was in his coal, and stopped with wax well For to keep in his limaile every deal.* *particle And while this priest was in his business, This canon with his sticke gan him dress* *apply To him anon, and his powder cast in, As he did erst (the devil out of his skin Him turn, I pray to God, for his falsehead, For he was ever false in thought and deed), And with his stick, above the crosselet, That was ordained* with that false get,** *provided **contrivance He stirr'd the coales, till relente gan The wax against the fire, as every man, But he a fool be, knows well it must need. And all that in the sticke was out yede,* *went And in the croslet hastily* it fell. *quickly Now, goode Sirs, what will ye bet* than well? *better When that this priest was thus beguil'd again, Supposing naught but truthe, sooth to sayn, He was so glad, that I can not express In no mannere his mirth and his gladness; And to the canon he proffer'd eftsoon* *forthwith; again Body and good. "Yea," quoth the canon soon, "Though poor I be, crafty* thou shalt me find; *skilful I warn thee well, yet is there more behind. Is any copper here within?" said he. "Yea, Sir," the prieste said, "I trow there be." "Elles go buy us some, and that as swithe.* *swiftly Now, goode Sir, go forth thy way and hie* thee." *hasten He went his way, and with the copper came, And this canon it in his handes name,* *took <15> And of that copper weighed out an ounce. Too simple is my tongue to pronounce, As minister of my wit, the doubleness Of this canon, root of all cursedness. He friendly seem'd to them that knew him not; But he was fiendly, both in work and thought. It wearieth me to tell of his falseness; And natheless yet will I it express, To that intent men may beware thereby, And for none other cause truely. He put this copper in the crosselet, And on the fire as swithe* he hath it set, *swiftly And cast in powder, and made the priest to blow, And in his working for to stoope low, As he did erst,* and all was but a jape;** *before **trick Right as him list the priest *he made his ape.* *befooled him* And afterward in the ingot he it cast, And in the pan he put it at the last Of water, and in he put his own hand; And in his sleeve, as ye beforehand Hearde me tell, he had a silver teine;* *small piece He silly took it out, this cursed heine* *wretch (Unweeting* this priest of his false craft), *unsuspecting And in the panne's bottom he it laft* *left And in the water rumbleth to and fro, And wondrous privily took up also The copper teine (not knowing thilke priest), And hid it, and him hente* by the breast, *took And to him spake, and thus said in his game; "Stoop now adown; by God, ye be to blame; Helpe me now, as I did you whilere;* *before Put in your hand, and looke what is there."

  • 普霍夫 08-05

      50. Julius: i.e. Julius Caesar

  • 戴利 08-04

       14. "To make the beard" means to befool or deceive. See note 15 to the Reeve's Tale. Precisely the same idea is conveyed in the modern slang word "shave" -- meaning a trick or fraud.

  • 艾思奇 08-02

    {  [In several respects, the story of "Troilus and Cressida" may be regarded as Chaucer's noblest poem. Larger in scale than any other of his individual works -- numbering nearly half as many lines as The Canterbury Tales contain, without reckoning the two in prose -- the conception of the poem is yet so closely and harmoniously worked out, that all the parts are perfectly balanced, and from first to last scarcely a single line is superfluous or misplaced. The finish and beauty of the poem as a work of art, are not more conspicuous than the knowledge of human nature displayed in the portraits of the principal characters. The result is, that the poem is more modern, in form and in spirit, than almost any other work of its author; the chaste style and sedulous polish of the stanzas admit of easy change into the forms of speech now current in England; while the analytical and subjective character of the work gives it, for the nineteenth century reader, an interest of the same kind as that inspired, say, by George Eliot's wonderful study of character in "Romola." Then, above all, "Troilus and Cressida" is distinguished by a purity and elevation of moral tone, that may surprise those who judge of Chaucer only by the coarse traits of his time preserved in The Canterbury Tales, or who may expect to find here the Troilus, the Cressida, and the Pandarus of Shakspeare's play. It is to no trivial gallant, no woman of coarse mind and easy virtue, no malignantly subservient and utterly debased procurer, that Chaucer introduces us. His Troilus is a noble, sensitive, generous, pure- souled, manly, magnanimous hero, who is only confirmed and stimulated in all virtue by his love, who lives for his lady, and dies for her falsehood, in a lofty and chivalrous fashion. His Cressida is a stately, self-contained, virtuous, tender-hearted woman, who loves with all the pure strength and trustful abandonment of a generous and exalted nature, and who is driven to infidelity perhaps even less by pressure of circumstances, than by the sheer force of her love, which will go on loving -- loving what it can have, when that which it would rather have is for the time unattainable. His Pandarus is a gentleman, though a gentleman with a flaw in him; a man who, in his courtier-like good-nature, places the claims of comradeship above those of honour, and plots away the virtue of his niece, that he may appease the love-sorrow of his friend; all the time conscious that he is not acting as a gentleman should, and desirous that others should give him that justification which he can get but feebly and diffidently in himself. In fact, the "Troilus and Cressida" of Chaucer is the "Troilus and Cressida" of Shakespeare transfigured; the atmosphere, the colour, the spirit, are wholly different; the older poet presents us in the chief characters to noble natures, the younger to ignoble natures in all the characters; and the poem with which we have now to do stands at this day among the noblest expositions of love's workings in the human heart and life. It is divided into five books, containing altogether 8246 lines. The First Book (1092 lines) tells how Calchas, priest of Apollo, quitting beleaguered Troy, left there his only daughter Cressida; how Troilus, the youngest brother of Hector and son of King Priam, fell in love with her at first sight, at a festival in the temple of Pallas, and sorrowed bitterly for her love; and how his friend, Cressida's uncle, Pandarus, comforted him by the promise of aid in his suit. The Second Book (1757 lines) relates the subtle manoeuvres of Pandarus to induce Cressida to return the love of Troilus; which he accomplishes mainly by touching at once the lady's admiration for his heroism, and her pity for his love-sorrow on her account. The Third Book (1827 lines) opens with an account of the first interview between the lovers; ere it closes, the skilful stratagems of Pandarus have placed the pair in each other's arms under his roof, and the lovers are happy in perfect enjoyment of each other's love and trust. In the Fourth Book (1701 lines) the course of true love ceases to run smooth; Cressida is compelled to quit the city, in ransom for Antenor, captured in a skirmish; and she sadly departs to the camp of the Greeks, vowing that she will make her escape, and return to Troy and Troilus within ten days. The Fifth Book (1869 lines) sets out by describing the court which Diomedes, appointed to escort her, pays to Cressida on the way to the camp; it traces her gradual progress from indifference to her new suitor, to incontinence with him, and it leaves the deserted Troilus dead on the field of battle, where he has sought an eternal refuge from the new grief provoked by clear proof of his mistress's infidelity. The polish, elegance, and power of the style, and the acuteness of insight into character, which mark the poem, seem to claim for it a date considerably later than that adopted by those who assign its composition to Chaucer's youth: and the literary allusions and proverbial expressions with which it abounds, give ample evidence that, if Chaucer really wrote it at an early age, his youth must have been precocious beyond all actual record. Throughout the poem there are repeated references to the old authors of Trojan histories who are named in "The House of Fame"; but Chaucer especially mentions one Lollius as the author from whom he takes the groundwork of the poem. Lydgate is responsible for the assertion that Lollius meant Boccaccio; and though there is no authority for supposing that the English really meant to designate the Italian poet under that name, there is abundant internal proof that the poem was really founded on the "Filostrato" of Boccaccio. But the tone of Chaucer's work is much higher than that of his Italian "auctour;" and while in some passages the imitation is very close, in all that is characteristic in "Troilus and Cressida," Chaucer has fairly thrust his models out of sight. In the present edition, it has been possible to give no more than about one-fourth of the poem -- 274 out of the 1178 seven-line stanzas that compose it; but pains have been taken to convey, in the connecting prose passages, a faithful idea of what is perforce omitted.]

  • 林勤德 08-02

      And on a day befell, that in that hour When that his meate wont was to be brought, The jailor shut the doores of the tow'r; He heard it right well, but he spake nought. And in his heart anon there fell a thought, That they for hunger woulde *do him dien;* *cause him to die* "Alas!" quoth he, "alas that I was wrought!"* *made, born Therewith the teares fell from his eyen.

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